What Should Hajj Pilgrims and
Those Who Perform Umrah
In the Name of Allah, The All-Merciful
All praise be to Allah and peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Prophet.
This is a brief pamphlet about the rites of Hajj (pilgrimage) and Umrah (Lesser Hajj) so that the Muslim can do these rites as the
Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did them.
May Allah make this pamphlet of great benefit and accept from you and us our good deeds.
Dear Muslim, If you want to perform Hajj, you should intend to perform one of these three types of Hajj:-
1- Tamattu' (it is the best type of Hajj, here you intend in your heart to perform Umrah and say at Miqat (station of Ihram) “O Allah I am responding to you my Lord, by Umrah. You start performing Umrah, when you finish, you abandon and discard Ihram. Then you are allowed to discard all the prohibitions of Ihram. On the 8th Day of Zul Hijja you should intend Hajj as explained in this pamphlet and slaughter a sacrifice (a ram).
2- Ifrad (making Hajj only in the prescribed months of Hajj. Once you enter Ihram, you should intend Hajj by saying at the Miqat: "I am responding to you my Lord, by Hajj)".
3- Qiran (making Hajj and Umrah at the same time) Hajj and Umrah by saying: ``I am responding to you my Lord by Umrah and Hajj together'', when you reach the Ka'ba, you circle it seven times, this type of Tawaf is called Tawaf Al-Qudoum (Circumambulation of Arrival), then you make Sa'ee seven times between Safa and Marwah, you can perform this Sa'ee later after Tawaf-Al-Ifadah, but it is better to perform it after TawafAl-Qodoum. You will be in the state of Ihram till the Day of Nahr (Day of Sacrifice) and you will start to perform rites of Hajj on the 8th Day of Zul-Hijja As explained in this pamphlet be sure to sacrifice.
First: How to Perform Umrah:-
1- If a Muslim intends to perform Umrah, he should take off his clothes, take a bath and then perfume himself.
Taking a bath before assuming Ihram is (Sunnah) for both men and women.
2- After taking a bath, the Muslim puts on Ihram dress and prays if the time is for prescribed prayer, otherwise he should intend Umrah in the state of Ihram without praying. He says ``Oh Allah, I am responding to you by Umrah'', after that he should recite Talbiyah by raising his voice as follows:
"Labbayk, Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayk La shareeka laka Labbayk.
Innal-hamda wan-n'imata laka wal-mulk. La shareeka lak."
``O my Lord, here I am at your service, here I am, There is no partner with You, here I am, truly, the praise and the provisions are Yours and so is the dominion and sovereignty, there is no partner with You''.
3- If the one who wants to assume Ihram fearing that any- thing may detain him from completing his rites, he can make his intention conditioned in state of Ihram by saying:-
“If I am detained by anything, my release from Ihram shall be where I am detained. In that case if he terminates his state of Ihram for some legal reason, such as illness or running out of money, he will be excused.”
4- When the Muslim enters the Holy Mosque, he should enter with his right foot and say the following prayer (du'a):
“In the Name of Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! Forgive my sins, and open for me the doors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in Allah the Supreme and with His Noble Face and His eternal authority from the accursed devil”.
Then he moves to the Black Stone to start Tawaf from it, touches it with his right hand and kisses it. If he cannot do so, he points his hand at it. It is better not to hurt people in case of over crowding. When he touches the Black Stone, he says the following prayer:
“In the Name of Allah, Allah is Greatest, O Allah I do this believing in you, confirming Your book, in faithfulness to Your covenants and in compliance with the Sunna of Your Prophet Muhammad (blessing and peace be on him)”.
5- He should keep the Ka'aba on his left when he comes to the Yemeni Corner, he may preferably touch it with his right hand, but does not kiss it. It is desirable for him to recite between the Yemeni Corner and Black Stone the following supplication:-
“Our Lord grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and protect us from the torment of the Fire”. And when ever he comes to the Black Stone he says:
“Allah is the Greatest (Allahu Akbar)”.
He can say what he likes during the rest of Tawaf like supplication, remembrance, recitation of Holy Quran etc, for Tawaf, Sa'ee and pelting stones has been made for the remembrance of Allah.
6- A man should do two things during Tawaf-Al-Qodoum (Circumambulation of Arrival):-
(1) Throw the upper sheet of his Ihram garment over his left shoulder, leaving his right shoulder exposed which is called in Arabic (Idtiba').
(2) Secondly:- move quickly in the first three rounds, for the other four rounds he should walk normally and not to move quickly.
7- Having completed his seven circlings, he moves to the station of Ibrahim reciting the following verse:-
“And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of [Ibraham as a place of prayer''. [Sura 2, vserse 125]
Then he performs two rak'as, preferably behind the Station of Ibrahim - In the first rak'a he recites Sura 109 (Al-Kafirun, in the second Sura 112 (Al-Ikhlas).
8- After praying behind the Station of Ibrahim, he leaves for Safa (hill) and when he approaches Safa, he recites the verse:
“Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Hajj or ‘Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawaf) between them (As-Safa and Al-Marwah). And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allah is All-Reccogniser, All-Knower.” [Sura 2, Verse 158] and says: “I begin from which Allah has begun”.
Then he climbs Safa, till he sees the Ka'ba and facing it raising his hands and say whatever prayer he likes. The prayer of Prophet Muhammad when he climbed Safa was as follows:
“There is no God but Allah, He has no partner. Sovereignty belongs to Him and praise too, He fulfilled his promise, helped His servant and routed the hosts, all alone". Then he descends from Safa walking, and when he reaches the Green Posts, he is recommended to move quickly between the two Green Posts then he walks normally till he reaches Marwa. As he climbs the hill of Marwah, he prays and praises to Him, with his face towards the Ka'aba as he did on Safa. He goes back to Safa and carries on until he completes seven courses. His coming from Safa and going to Marwa is considered to be one course. He may say what ever he likes: Du'a, Quraan etc..
When he completes Sa'ee seven courses, he should shave or cut part (shorten) the hair on his head. Women are to cut only a finger tip's length from their hair.
Shaving is better than shortening because the Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prayed for those who shaved three times and prayed for those who shortened once. The only exceptional case is when the time of Hajj is about to come.It is better for him to shorten so that he leaves some of his hair to be shaved or shortened in pilgrimage.
How to perform Hajj:
Pillars of Hajj:- (Arkan)
2. Standing in Arafat i.e. staying and supplication
3. Tawaf Al-Ifadah (Main Circumambulation)
4. Making Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah
Duties of Hajj: (Wajibat)
1. Ihram at Miqat (Station of Ihram)
2. Standing at Arafat till the sunset for those who stand there by noon.
3. Spending the night in Muzdalifa and leaving before sunrise except women and weak people who may proceed to Mina at any time after midnight.
4. Staying during the nights of Tashriq Days in Mina.
5. Pelting the three Jamarat during the Days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Zul Hijja).
6. Shaving or shortening of hair after pelting Jamarat al-A'kaba.
7.Tawaf Al-Wadda (Farewell Circumambulation).
* He who leaves a pillar of Hajj, his Hajj will not be accepted unless he does this pillar (rukun).
* He who leaves a duty (Wajib), he should offer sacrifice for the poor of Al-Haram.
Forbidden Acts During the state of Ihram:
Applying perfume, trimming hair or clipping the nails, a male covering his head, killing or hunting animals of game, sexual intercourse with your spouse, and its causes and stimulants, making a marriage contract, marriage proposal, wearing sewn clothes or boots or shoes reaching above the ankles, cutting or plucking of trees, plants or grass within the Sacred Precincts (Al-Haram).
Rites of Hajj
8th Day of Dhul-Hijja (Tarwiyah Day):
* At noon this Day, the pilgrim performs Ihram from any- where he stays where he intends to perform the rites of Hajj.
Before Talbiya he should do the following:-
Take a bath, clip his nails, trim his moustache, shave the pubic hair then put on 2 clean white seamless garments (Izar and Rida), women put on any regular decent dress, but she should not use face veils and gloves and she should leave the face and the hands uncovered but she is allowed to cover her face with her garment or head cover that is not a niqab when men approach.
For ‘Qarin’ and ‘Mufrid’, it is not allowed for them to shave or shortening hair as Mutamatti does, because they are still in the state of Ihram.
* It is a Sunnah for the pilgrim to cover his shoulders when he puts on Ihram dress.
* Then he says “Here I am My Lord, I intend to perform Hajj”.
* If he fears that anything may detain him from completing Hajj, He can make his intention conditional by saying:
“If I am detained by anything, my release from Ihram shall be where I am detained, "Whenever he conditioned and is detained by anything, he could discard his Ihram without any penalty”.
* When the pilgrim intends Hajj, He must avoid all forbidden acts of Ihram.
* Pilgrim recites Talbiya very often and does not stop reciting till he reaches Mina where he pelts jamarat Al-Aqaba on the 10th day of Zul-Hijja.
* Then he proceeds with pilgrims to Mina reciting Talbiya where he prays Noon prayer (Zuhr), Afternoon prayer (Asr), Sunset prayer (Maghrib), Evening Prayer (Isha) and Dawn Prayer (Fajr), he is not allowed to combine prayers together, he is only allowed to shorten 4-rak'at prayers.
* The Prophet (may peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) did not use to maintain supererogatory prayers which called in Arabic (Rawatib). He only used during his travel to practise the two optional Rakaat before the morning prayer and also the Witr prayer (after Isha prayer).
* He should maintain the supplications used to be said by Prophet Muhammad, especially, the supplications of morning evening & sleeping.
* He stays in Mina this night.
9th Day of Dul-Hijjah
(Day of Arafah)
* After sunrise on Ninth Day of Zul-Hijjah, he is to set out from Mina to Arafat reciting Talbiya and saying Allah is the Greatest (Allahu Akbar).
* It is detestable (Makruh) to fast on this Day of Arafa, for the Prophet stood in Arafat breakfasting with milk in the presence of all pilgrims.
* It is sunnah for the pilgrim to stay in Namirah till after midday, if that is possible.
* Listen to the Khutbah (sermon) at the Mosque of Namira, then combine in advance and shorten Dhuhr and Asr prayer (Noon and Afternoon Prayer).
* He must be sure when he enters Arafah that he is inside Arafah, because the Valley of U'rana is not a part of Arafah.
* He is recommended to raise his hands and face the Qibla while supplicating and remembering Allah till sunset.
* The whole of Arafat is reserved for Wuquf (standing). If he can keep the Mountain of Rahma between him and the Qibla, it will be better.
* It is not the Sunnah of the Prophet to climb the mountain.
* He says very often the following prayer (Du'a).
“There is no God but Allah, Alone. He has no partner. Sovereignty belongs to Him, and praise too, He gives life and takes it. He has power over all things”.
* He says very often peace and blessings on the Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessing of Allah be upon him).
* He does not leave Arafat till the sunset.
* After sunset the pilgrim moves from Arafat to Muzadalifa calmly. If he finds a wide space he can move quickly.
* He performs in Muzdalifa the Maghrib Prayer and Isha Prayer together at the time of the latter, he should not pray any extra prayer except Witr prayer.
* He sleeps till dawn. Women and weak people may leave for Mina at any time after midnight, or disappearance of the moon.
10th Day of Dhul-Hijjah
* Dear brothers and sisters may Allah accept our Hajj.
* All pilgrims must perform Dawn Prayer (Fajr) in Muzadlifa with the exception of women and weak people.
* After Dawn Prayer face the Qibla, keep praising Allah, reciting Takbir (Allah is the Greatest) and supplication until the sky becomes a glow.
* Before sunrise proceed to Mina quietly reciting Talbiya.
* Speed up your walk when you pass by Muhassir Valley.
* Pick up seven pebbles from anywhere in Muzadalifa or Mina.
Then you have to do the following:
1. Throw seven pebbles at Jamarat Al-Aqaba in a successive way and recite Takbir with every pebble. Then you slaughter Hadi (“It is an obligation for the Mutamatia' and the Qarin only”).
He eats from the sacrifice and distributes some to the poor.
2. You shorten and shave hair from all parts of your head. It is better to shave it (for men only). Women are to cut only a fingertip of their hair. At this time all the prohibitions of Ihram state become permissible except for sexual intercourse, so you can wear your clothes and apply perfume, etc.
The first discard of Ihram happens with performing two of three - pelting, shaving and Tawaf.
3. Then you return to Makkah and perform the main circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Ifada).
4. In the case of Tamattu, you should perform Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa and also in the case of Ifrad and Qiran If he did not perform Sa'ee after Circumambulation of Arrival (Tawaf Al-Qudoum). Then the pilgrim will be allowed all-things prohibited due to state of Ihram including sexual intercourse with his wife.
5. There is no harm for the pilgrim if he does something out of order for example he shaves before throwing, there is no harm on him.
6.Drink the water of Zamzam and perform Noon prayer in Makkah if possible.
7.You have to stay the night in Mina.
11th Day of Zul-Hijjah
* You should maintain the five prescribed congregational prayers while spending nights at Mina.
* During Tashriq Days (11th, 12th, 13th of Zul-Hijjah) recite Takbir (Allah is Greatest) very often after prayers which is called restricted remembrance where as the absolute remembrance can be recited at any time and in any place.
* You start throwing pebbles at each of three Jamarat after mid day. So you start with small Jamarat, then the middle Jamara, after that the Al-Aqaba Jamara which is called (Big Jamra).
* Throw seven pebbles at each of the three Jamarat successively.
* After throwing seven pebbles at the small Jamra successively, you face the Qibla with the small Jamra on your left and keep Khaif mosque on your right. Then you supplicate and entreat Allah longer as Prophet Muhammad did.
* After pelting the middle Jamara, you keep it on your right facing Qibla and supplicate and entreat so long.
* After throwing at Jamarat Al-Aqaba you leave immediately and not stand for supplication.
* It is permissible to pelt at night if necessary.
* Then you spend the night in Mina.
12th Day of Zul--Hijjah
* During staying nights in Mina, you should make use of your time by remembering Allah and doing good deeds.
* After mid day you throw pebbles at each of the three jamarat successively as you did before.
* After throwing, if you want to leave sooner, you are allowed to do so.
You have to leave before sunset and make Farewell Circumambulation.
* It is better for the pilgrim to stay late for throwing.
* It is better to pray during your stay in Mina on the Days of Tashreeq in Al-Khaif Mosque.
13th Day of Zul-Hijjah
* After you stay the night in Mina, you pelt the three Jamarat exactly as you did on the 11th and 12th Day.
* If you intend to go back home, perform Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada). Women in the state of menstruation or puerperium (child birth bleeding) are exempted from performing this final circumambulation.
* By this, you have finished your Hajj and praise be to Allah.
1- Some pilgrims lack good behaviour and understanding of Islamic teachings, that is why you may see them committing some unlawful things and performing rites of Hajj and Umrah in the wrong way, they show no interest to change their bad manners committed before Hajj. Actually, this is a sign that their pilgrimage is incomplete, if we do not go so far as to say that it is unacceptable. There is no might nor power except with Allah.
2- The pilgrim should seize the opportunity during the Day of Arafah, for it is the day in which Allah forgives sins, releases people from fire and the angels boast of the pilgrims standing in Arafah.
3- When throwing the seven pebbles at each Jamra, it is required that the pebbles should fall in the throwing place (the basin).
4- You are not allowed while you are in state of Ihram to wash your hands and body with soap that is made of musk and other kinds of perfumes.
5- Whoever does not find `Hady' (sacrifice) or cannot afford it, he shall have to fast for three days during Hajj season and seven days after returning home. You can fast these days successively and intermittently. The population of Haram are exempted from offering `Hady' (sacrifice).
6- You will have a great reward when you serve pilgrims and are patient and over look their mistakes.
7- The pilgrim is allowed to change Ihram dress and take a bath when ever it is needed.
8- It is a Sunnah to visit the Prophet's Mosque before or after Hajj. The prayer in it is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque. It is preferable to visit the Prophet's grave and his two companions and make salam (peace) to them, then you visit Quba Mosque and pray two rak'at in it.After that you visit Baqi` where the graves of the companions are and pray for them. After that, the graves of the martyrs of Uhud and pray for them.
It is not allowed to call the dead or seek help from them, for it is a kind of polytheism which nullifies the deeds.
Some Supplications and Remembrances
* It was reported that the Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "The best prayer is the supplication of the Day of Arafah and the best words that I said and the previous Prophets are:
“There is no God, but Allah, He has no partner sovereignty belongs to Him, and Praise too, He gives life and takes it. He has power over all things”.
* Prophet Muhammad said: “The most beloved speech to Allah are four words:- ‘How perfect Allah is, and all praise is for Allah- None has right to be worshipped except Allah, and Allah is the Greatest'.”
* Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah said: ‘There are two words (which are) light on the tongue, heavy on the scale and beloved to the Most Gracious:
“How perfect Allah is and I praise Him, How perfect Allah is, The Supreme”.’
* “O Allah, I have indeed oppressed my soul excessively and none can forgive sin except You, so give me forgiveness from Yourself and have mercy up on me. Surely, You are the Most-Forgiving, The Most-Merciful”.
* ‘O Allah, by Your knowledge of the unseen and Your power over creation, keep me alive as long as You know such life to be good for me and take me if You know death to be better for me. O Allah, make me fearful of You whether in secret or in public and I ask You to make me fair in speech, in times of pleasure and anger. I ask You to make me moderate in times of wealth and poverty and I ask You for ever lasting bliss and joy which will never cease. I ask You to make me pleased with what You have decreed and for easy life after death. I ask You for the sweetness of looking up on Your Face and a longing to encounter You in a manner which does not entail a calamity which will bring about harm nor a trial which will cause deviation. O Allah, beautify us with adornment of faith and make us of those who guide and are rightly guided’.
* ‘O Allah I ask you every goodness that Your Prophet Muhammad asked You and I seek refuge with You from every evil that Your Prophet Muhammad sought refuge with You from it, but is You on Whom we depend and seek help and there is no might nor power except with Allah’.
* You should ask forgiveness very often and repent sincerely and ask Allah the goodness of this world and the Hereafter and send blessings on the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet Muhammad used to say this prayer very often:
“O Allah give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and guard us from the torment of Fire”.
Mistakes and Contrary Acts of Pilgrims
There are some mistakes and contrary acts committed by some pilgrims when they perform the rites of Hajj and Umrah. We will mention them briefly so that pilgrims will avoid them:
1- Leaving his right shoulder exposed from the beginning of Ihram till the end of the ritual acts We call it in Arabic (Idtiba).
2- Leaving Talbiya loudly or leaving it all at once after Ihram and in Muzdalifa and Mina.
3- Reciting Talbiya in groups, commanded by a leader.
4- Innovation of special supplications when entering the Holy Mosque or seeing the Ka'ba.
5- Inventing special supplication to every course during Sa'ee or Tawaf while what is legal is recitation of Holy Quran and absolute supplication.
6- Praying loudly and in a group which disturbs and confuses the others who make Tawaf.
7- Pointing to the Kaba when climbing Safa.
8- Some women move quickly between the two green posts while it is permissible for men only.
9- Some of pilgrims think that the Sa'ee from Safa to Marwah and then return to Safa is a course, this is wrong, but the correct is that the Sa'ee from Safa to Marwah is one course, and returning to Safa is an other course.
10- Shaving some parts of the head and leaving an other part unshaved or cutting some areas of the head and leaving the rest.
11-Not facing Qibla during supplication in Arafah.
12- Insisting on climbing the mountain of Arafah for supplication.
13-Wasting time in Arafah, Mina and the nights of Tashreeq without any benefits.
14- Considering the picking up of pebbles from Muzdalifa is obligatory and thinking that washing them before pelting has excellence.
15- Neglecting standing for supplication (Du'a) after pelting of Al-Jamarat.
16- Sacrificing hady animals which are not of legal ages.
17- Many pilgrims at the last afternoon of Arafah look busy to leave Arafah where this time is the best time for supplication (Du'a). Allah is most pleased by His servants at this time.
18- Performing the prayers of sunset and evening (Maghrib and Isha) at Muzdalifa without being sure of the direction of the Qibla. It is a duty on them to ask about the direction of the Qibla.
19- Leaving Muzdalifa before mid night and leaving spending the night in it, although it is an obligation of Hajj.
20- Some strong people authorize others to throw on their behalf, where as the authoriztion is permissible for the weak people only and the like.
21- Pelting the Jamarat with shoes and big rocks.
22- Some pilgrims shave their beards on the Day of Eid, considering it as a kind of ornament where as it is disobedience at an excellent time and place.
23- Overcrowding for reaching and kissing the Black Stone to the extent of fighting and insulting which does not suit the manners of Hajj and the Holy Mosque.
24- Believing that the Black Stone is beneficial in itself, so that is why some pilgrims rub their bodies when they touch it. This is an ignorance because it is only Allah who brings benefit, so when Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) touched the Black Stone said “I know that you are a stone which brings no benefit and removes no harm and if I had not seen the Messenger of Allah kiss you, I would have never kissed you”.
25- Touching all parts of the Ka'ba and rubbing it by some pilgrims. This is plain ignorance for touching is a kind of worship that must be done according to the Holy Quran and the Sunnah.
26- Kissing the Yemeni corner which is wrong, for the Yemen corner is touched by hand.
27- Circumambulation of the Ka'ba from inside the Hijr which is wrong.(The Hijr is the low semi-circular wall next to the Ka'bah.)
28- Combining prayers together in Mina.
29- Some pilgrims start throwing Jamarat Al-Aqaba then the Medium Jamarah after that the Small Jamarah where as the correct is vice versa.
30- Throwing all the pebbles at once which is a terrible mistake. Scholars said that if he throws all the pebbles at once, it would be considered one pebble only. It is a duty on him to throw one by one as the Prophet Muhammad did (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
31- Some pilgrims leaving Mina for Makkah to make the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wadah) and coming back to Mina to throw at Al-Jamarat which is contrary to the commandment of Prophet Mohammad, for (Tawaf Al-Wadah) is the last act of Hajj.
32- Staying in Makkah after Farewell circumambulation.
33-To beleive in the permissibility of visitiing the Prophet's grave in Madina i.e. One should have the intention of visiting the masjid as opposed to the grave while there.
The above mistakes should be avoided, and kept away from. The best guidance is the guidance of our Prophet Muhammad who said “Take from me your rites”.
Praise be to Almighty Allah